Household Use of Solid Fuels and High-temperature Frying

IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume 95







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This volume provides a first-time evaluation of the carcinogenicity of household solid fuel combustion (coal and biomass) and of high-temperature frying. About half of the world's population, mostly in low-resource and medium-resource countries, use solid fuels for cooking or heating, often in poorly ventilated spaces. In this volume, indoor emissions from household combustion of coal, and from household combustion of biomass fuel, as well as stir-frying, deep-frying, and pan-frying - all involving heating cooking oil to high temperatures - were evaluated by an IARC Monographs Working Group, reviewing epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to their carcinogenic hazard to humans.