Dry Cleaning, Some Chlorinated Solvents and Other Industrial Chemicals

IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume 63







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Evaluates the carcinogenic risks to humans posed by exposures in the dry cleaning industry, by eight chlorinated solvents and related chemicals, and by an additional group of seven industrial chemicals. Dry cleaning is evaluated in the first and most extensive monograph. Concerning exposures to specific chemicals, tetrachloroethylene is identified as the most commonly used solvent during the last two to three decades. The evaluation also considers exposure to the wide range of chemicals used in the treatment of spots. A review of epidemiological studies on dry cleaning indicates that the risks for cancers at two cites, urinary bladder and oesophagus, may be increased by employment in dry cleaning. The monograph concludes that dry cleaning entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. A second group of monographs evaluates selected chlorinated solvents and related chemicals used in dry cleaning, metal cleaning and degreasing, as chemical intermediates, and in the production of insecticides and herbicides. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane were classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. 1-Chloro-2-methylpropene was classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. The remaining chemicals - chloral and chloral hydrate, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and 3-chloro-2-methylpropene - could not be classified. For the remaining seven chemicals used in a diversity of industrial applications, vinyl fluoride was classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. Furan, benzofuran, and vinyl acetate were classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and furfural could not be classified.


  Contents and Note to the Reader
  List of Participants
  General Remarks
  Summary of Final Evaluations
  Supplementary Corrigenda for Volumes 1-68
  Cumulative Cross Index to IARC Monographs



Dry Cleaning

Some Chlorinated Solvents and Related Chemicals

   Trichloroethylene [superseded by Volume 106]

   Tetrachloroethylene [superseded by Volume 106]


   Chloral and chloral hydrate [superseded by Volume 84 and Volume 106]

   Dichloroacetic acid [superseded by Volume 84 and Volume 106]

   Trichloroacetic acid [superseded by Volume 84 and Volume 106]




Other Industrial Chemicals






   Vinyl Acetate

   Vinyl fluoride [superseded by Volume 97]

  Appendix 1 Summary Tables of Genetic and Related Effects
  Appendix 2 Activity Profiles for Genetic and Related Effects