Ingested Nitrate and Nitrite, and Cyanobacterial Peptide Toxins

IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume 94







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This volume of the IARC Monographs provides an evaluation of the carcinogenicity of ingested nitrate and nitrite, and the cyanobacterial peptide toxins, microcystin-LR and nodularins. These agents are linked environmentally through the runoff of agricultural fertilisers that increase nitrogen concentrations in surface water and groundwater, and that could contribute to cyanobacterial growth in surface water. Moreover, nitrate and nitrite are added to meat and fish for preservation, as colour fixatives and as flavouring agents. An IARC Monographs Working Group reviewed epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to the carcinogenic hazard of these agents to humans.