This guidance document consists of six chapters that provide technical advice to planners and health specialists in low- and middle-income countries wishing to implement and develop population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) as information systems that inform cancer control policy. Chapter 1 places the need for cancer registration in the context of the rapidly increasing burden from the disease seen worldwide. Chapter 2 describes the characteristics of the different types of cancer registry and the unique functions of PBCRs and their present status worldwide. Chapters 3 and 4 outline the critical steps in planning and developing a PBCR in lower-resource settings, including discussion of the key sources of information required and the minimal standard set of data items that the PBCR should collect. Aspects in the set-up that will help ensure the sustainability of the registry are emphasized, including comments on infrastructure and resource requirements as well as the commitment of stakeholders. Chapter 5 describes the main techniques to evaluate and further enhance the data quality at the PBCR. Chapter 6 provides some advice on reporting the results to the community at large in support of cancer control and thus promoting the increasing utility of the registry.